Wednesday 4-11-2015 Geometric Morphometrics (Microscribe and laser scanning)
10.30 – 11.00 Measuring shape in biology – a short guide to Geometric Morphometrics
Thibaut De Meulemeester – Naturalis Biodiversity Center
The basics of GMM will be introduced and explained with some examples using 2D and 3D morphometrics. Traditional morphometrics (distances, angles, ratios) is limited by influence of size, and the shape cannot be analyzed. There is GMM for, either with landmarks or outlines. Procures superimposition removes the non-shape variation (scale, translation, rotation). More information on http://www.transmittingscience.org/hystrix-yellow-book.
11.00 – 11.20 Tracking and printing dinosaurs: 3D scanning and 3D printing in the upcoming dinosaur exhibits in Naturalis
Anne Schulp – Naturalis Biodiversity Center
Next year, Naturalis will present a new Tyrannosaurus rex specimen, and in 2018, the new dinosaur gallery in the new museum will open. The developments in 3D imaging and 3D printing techniques have many applications in paleontology; not only in research but also in outreach and museology. The upcoming “Welcome T. rex”-exhibition at Naturalis will feature (the results of) 3D Laser scanning, 3D photogrammetry, CT-scanning and 3D printing. This short presentation will provide an overview of the ongoing 3D projects on and around the Naturalis T. rex.
11.20 – 11.50
Hans Cornelisse – GOM/Optical Measuring Techniques
Examples and possibilities using laser and light scanners. It can only be applied to non-live materials and ‘sees’ what humans see (not looking around the corner). Software to make your model visible is the crucial step.
11.50 – 12.20 “Why do different birds have different beaks? Linking shape with biomechanics”
Jen Bright – University of Sheffield
During evolution we see how animals change in shape to become better adapted to their environments, but what is not always clear is why a certain shape is better than another. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a method borrowed from engineering that can be used to see how complex shapes (like skulls and other bones) respond to forces that an animal encounters every day, like biting on food, running, or fighting. By using FEA together with shape analysis like geometric morphometrics, we can investigate how the relationship between shape and function works. Jen will show these ideas using examples from modern birds, and also show how everyone who is interested can help us build the biggest shape database of bird beaks ever collected!
Especially the last lecture showed me that ‘borrowing’ a technique from a different discipline can further the progress in a research field. The application in the Mark my Bird project (markmybird.org) opens up the perspective to get a deep understanding of bird evolution once understanding functional morphology has progressed.