Tag Archives: colombia

Colombian Stenostylus and Drymaeus

Freshly pressed: a paper on two genera from Colombia with description of new species. The following abstract is given: “The land snails of the genera Drymaeus Albers, 1850 and Stenostylus Pilsbry, 1898, both belonging to the family Bulimulidae, and occurring within northwestern South America are revised and notes on their distribution are given. 78 species of Drymaeus and two of Stenostylus are herein confirmed from Colombia, and are illustrated for comparison. Six new (sub)species are described: Drymaeus (Drymaeus) denticulus, D. (D.) duplexannulus, D. (D.) felix restrepoensis, D. (D.) iniurius, D. (D.) intermissus, D. (D.) luciensis.”

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The abstract continues: “Drymaeus flexuosus megas Pilsbry, 1944 is now upgraded to species level. A lectotype is designated for Drymaeus roseatus montanus Pilsbry, 1901.
The following nominal taxa are herein synonymised: Bulimus antioquiensis L. Pfeiffer, 1855 = B. baranguillanus L. Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus hachensis Reeve, 1850 = B. virgo Lea, 1838 = B. columbianus Lea, 1838; Drymaeus eversus alata Piaget, 1914 = Drymaeus eversus subula Piaget, 1914 = Bulimus violaceus Mousson, 1873 = B. confluens L. Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus cantatus medinanus Pilsbry, 1935 = D. tusagasuganus Pilsbry, 1935 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus) plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus L. Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus fallax chicoensis Breure, 1977 = Bulimus fallax L. Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus trivittatus Mousson, 1869 = B. felix L. Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus andicola L. Pfeiffer, 1847 = B. multilineatus Say, 1825; Bulimulus (Drymaeus) comis Preston, 1907 = Bulimus pealianus Lea, 1838; Drymaeus incognita da Costa, 1907 = D. bellus da Costa, 1906 = D. blandi Pilsbry, 1898 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus) smithii da Costa, 1898.
For the following species, precise localities are given for the first time: Drymaeus (Drymaeus) angusta da Costa, 1906, D. (D.) auris (L. Pfeiffer, 1866), D. (D.) baranguillanus (L. Pfeiffer 1853), D. (D.) cognatus Pilsbry, 1901, D. (D.) geometricus (L. Pfeiffer 1846), D. (D.) inclinatus (L. Pfeiffer 1862), D. (D.) spadiceus da Costa, 1906, D. (Mesembrinus) koppelli (G.B. Sowerby III, 1892), D. (M.) muliebris (Reeve 1849).
Newly recorded for the Colombian malacofauna are the following five taxa: Drymaeus (Drymaeus) fordii Pilsbry, 1898, D. (D.) glaucostomus (Albers, 1852), D. (D.) volsus Fulton, 1907, D. (Mesembrinus) interruptus (Preston, 1909).
The following 27 taxa are excluded from the Colombian fauna as we consider them based on erroneous or doubtful records: Stenostylus meleagris (L. Pfeiffer, 1853), Drymaeus (Drymaeus) attenuatus (L. Pfeiffer, 1853), D. (D.) chimborasensis (Reeve, 1848), D. (D.) edmuelleri (Albers, 1854), D. (D.) linostoma (d’Orbigny, 1835), D. (D.) membielinus (Crosse, 1867), D. (D.) phryne (L. Pfeiffer, 1863), D. (D.) poecilus (d’Orbigny, 1835), D. (D.) protractus (L. Pfeiffer, 1855), D. (D.) rugistriatus Haas, 1952, D. (D.) strigatus (Sowerby, 1833), D. (D.) subinterruptus (L. Pfeiffer, 1853), D. (Mesembrinus) cactivorus (Broderip, 1832), D. (M.) deshayesi (L. Pfeiffer, 1845), D. (M.) dubius (L. Pfeiffer, 1853), D. (M.) flavidus (Menke, 1829), D. (M.) granadensis (L. Pfeiffer, 1848), D. (M.) liliaceus (Férussac, 1821), D. (M.) loxanus (Higgins, 1872), D. (M.) manupictus (Reeve, 1848), D. (M.) multifasciatus (Lamarck, 1822), D. (M.) nitidus (Broderip, 1832), D. (M.) pertristis Pilsbry, 1898, D. (M.) pervariabilis (L. Pfeiffer, 1853), D. (M.) studeri (L. Pfeiffer, 1847), D. (M.) translucens (Broderip, 1832)“.

The paper includes distribution maps for most species and a brief analysis of the fact that a number of species have not been recorded again after their initial collection.

Reference:
Breure, A.S.H. & Borrero, F.J., 2019. A review of Stenostylus Pilsbry, 1898 and Drymaeus Albers, 1850 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Orthalicoidea: Bulimulidae) from Colombia, with description of new species. – Folia conchyliologica, 52: 1-79

New Granada

Working on a paper related to Colombian Drymaeus reveals some well-known puzzles about old localities who have not been traced again. In fact, the denomination of the area as “New Grenada” is somewhat of a puzzle, as the meaning of that terminology has shifted over time.
Just out of curiosity, I searched for pictures on “New Grenada” in Google. I found a few, and the shift in what has to be called “New Grenada” is clearly illustrated in the following time-series.

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Map of New Grenada
Author: John Pilkerton, 1811. Scale 1:3,400,000. Publshers: Cadell & Davies; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Ome & Brown, London

 

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Map of the Kingdom of New Grenada
Author: Hall Sidney, 1827. Scale 1:5,700,000. Publisher: Caddell, London.

 

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Map of Venezuela, New Grenada & Equador
Author: Henny Tanner, 1836. Scale 1:6,969,600. Publisher: H.S. Tanner, Philadelphia

The first map shows that New Grenada at one time reached the borders of the Río Marañon, now in the territory of Perú. The last map is especially interesting, since it depicts the situation at the time from which many type material originate, that can still be found in museum collections. What struck me is the very different limitation of the ‘Provinces” or “Departments”. Colombia consisted in the mid-19th century of four parts: Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena and Boyacá. Their geographical limits are, however, rather different from their current, being far more extensive. When interpreting old locality labels this knowledge can be very helpful to pinpoint certain places, which might not be located where one would expect them with today’s map in front.

Just an example of some puzzles that I consider solved, where some geographical knowledge and modern facilities go hand in hand. One of the collectors who travelled extensively through Colombia at that time was Thomas Bland (1809-1885). Many of his collected material was studied by Pilsbry during his work for the Manual of Conchology. But quite often modern authors may be puzzled about some of the places that were visited by Bland.
There were three Drymaeus species with localities originating from Bland that, at first, I was unable to locate. “Between Salamina and Cabuyal, west of Ervé” was one of them, a locality reported for D. bogotensis (Pfeiffer). I looked up Ervé in the GNS gazetteer but nothing turned up. On the other hand, Salamina and Cabuyal – though not sounding like common names – turned up many times from different parts of Colombia. I decided to leave it and went on with my revision.
Another puzzling locality was “near Santa Ana”, type locality of D. decoratus goniobasis Pilsbry, based on material collected by Bland. When I looked up “Santa Ana” in the gazetteer, many places of that name turned up from all over the country.
Finally, I came to D. geometricus (Pfeiffer), for which Pilsbry had another locality from Bland: “Forests in the mountains below Ervé, on the road to Santa Ana”. I’m unaware if there has anything been published about the journeys of Bland in Colombia, but now I had three parts of a puzzle and I decided to find some solution. First the place “Ervé”. This is a highly unusual spelling in Spanish, so it could be phonetical. I decided to look for “erve” in the GNS database, but not with “starts with” option enabled, but with the “contains” option instead. It turned up 6 names, of which 3 could be skipped right away. I ended up with “Páramo de Herveo” and two variants of the populated place “Herveo”, all at or very close to 05° 05′ 00″ N 075° 10′ 00″ W, which is in Dept. Tolima. The first puzzle bit was in place.
The next step was to find Santa Ana, which could not be far away. When I scrutinized the list of names I did not find a place with a modern name that seemed logical to me. Then I was struck by the name Falán in the list, with a variant name Santa Ana, and located 25 km ENE of Herveo. That seemed logical to me, both places are in the region of Fresno in the upper Magdalena valley, from which the species have been reported.
Then finally Salamina and Cabuyal. With the location of Herveo in mind I looked through all the records for these names in the GNS gazetteer. Salamina is in Dept. Caldas, nearly 50 km NW of Herveo. And there is a “Quebrada Cabuyal” in Tolima, 60 km SE of Herveo. Both places are marked with red in the map below, while the three localties of the Drymaeus species mentioned are marked with yellow. Three species finally found their home.

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This post was originally published in my previous blog in November 2007; thanks to the WaybackMachine I’m able to re-publish it here.

Veronicellids recharacterised

Just published: a paper by Rocha & D’ávila on the Veronicellid genera Latipes and Angustipes.

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Their abstract is “The genera Angustipes Colosi, 1922 and Latipes Colosi, 1922 were originally proposed as “groups” within the genus Vaginulus Ferrussac, 1822, and since their establishment they have been variously considered valid or invalid until they gained the ultimate status of genus. The descriptions of both genera are general and broadly inclusive, and this fact has complicated taxonomic recognition. Additionally, incomplete descriptions and difficult identification of characteristics in the name-bearing type specimens demonstrate the need to revisit the species and revise the two genera. Herein, we broaden the description of Latipes erinaceus Colosi, 1922 with respect to the circulatory system, the radula, the jaw, the position of entry of the ligation duct in the bursa copulatrix in relation to the canal of the bursa, the origin of the muscle of the penial gland, along with the morphometric characteristics of the phallus, the penial gland, the pedal gland, and the bursa copulatrix. We also propose new differential diagnoses for the genera Angustipes and Latipes, limited to the essential characteristics that enable taxonomic recognition. Hence, we propose the assignment of the species L. erinaceus, Latipes rosilus (Thiele, 1927), Latipes ribeirensis (Thiele, 1927), and Latipes absumptus (Colosi, 1921) to the genus Angustipes, based on the presence of morpho- logical characteristics attributable to this genus, such as the phallus being short and conical; the bursa copulatrix being sessile or short, and lacking a head; the ligation duct inserted near the canal of the bursa; as well as on the similarity in phallus morphology with Angustipes difficilis Colosi, 1922, the type species of this genus“.

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The family Veronicellidae is notoriously enigmatic due to the need to use anatomical charcters for classification. This paper is thus a welcome addition to the literature of this family.
Reference:
Rocha, C.A. & D’ávila, S., 2019. New Morphological Characterization of Latipes erinaceus (Gastropoda, Veronicellidae), Differential Diagnosis for the Genera Angustipes and Latipes, and Novel Combinations for Species of Latipes. – Zoological Science (Tokyo), 36 (3):231-241.

Achatina in Colombia

Patino-Montoya et al. recently published a paper on the Giant African Snail in Colombia. Their abstract reads “Populations of invasive species may differ in the characteristics that determine the intensity of their effects on native ecosystems. The study of morphological variation provides valuable information on different evolutionary and ecological processes. In order to evaluate the patterns of morphological variation of the African Snail (Achatina fulica), an invasive species present in the department of Valle del Cauca, individuals were collected in urban areas of 4 municipalities (Buenaventura, Cali, Tulua and Cartago). An analysis of geometric morphometry and classification based on the pattern of bands was performed on the collected specimens. A significant morphological variation within the population was found, along with a total of 13 patterns of bands or coloration in the entire sample. Environmental conditions of each locality and controls exerted by the environmental authority are proposed as possible causes of variation”.

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The observed variation does not seem to me as extraordinary, but maybe I am missing the point of this paper…

Reference:
Patino-Montaya et al., 2018. Variacion morfologica poblacional de una especie invasora: el caracol gigante africano, Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822) (Mollusca: Gastropoda-Achatinidae) en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. – Biota Colombiana, 19 (1): 112-122.

Photo of the day (169): Rhodea

Eduardo Calderón sent me two photographs for identification. Although the shell height was not mentioned in any way, the figures combined with the locality where the specimen was found (Colombia, near Cali, in a cloud forest at El Faro, ca. 1800 m) makes me think this is likely Rhodea gigantea Mousson, 1873. See also Grego et al. (2007).

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Reference:
Grego, J., Steffek, J. & Infante, A.P., 2007. Review of the genus Rhodea (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Subulinidae), with description of two new species from Colombia. – Basteria, 71: 13-28.

Invasive Deroceras slugs

Just published: a paper by Hutchinson et al. (2014) on invasive Deroceras slugs. The abstract reads:

The article reviews distribution records of Deroceras invadens (previously called D. panormitanum and D. caruanae), adding significant unpublished records from the authors’ own collecting, museum samples, and interceptions on goods arriving in the U.S.A. By 1940 D. invadens had already arrived in Britain, Denmark, California, Australia and probably New Zealand; it has turned up in many further places since, including remote oceanic islands, but scarcely around the eastern Mediterranean (Egypt and Crete are the exceptions), nor in Asia. Throughout much of the Americas its presence seems to have been previously overlooked, probably often being mistaken for D. laeve. New national records include Mexico, Costa Rica, and Ecuador, with evidence from interceptions of its presence in Panama, Peru, and Kenya. The range appears limited by cold winters and dry summers; this would explain why its intrusion into eastern Europe and southern Spain has been rather slow and incomplete. At a finer geographic scale, the occurrence of the congener D. reticulatum provides a convenient comparison to control for sampling effort; D. invadens is often about half as frequently encountered and sometimes predominates. Deroceras invadens is most commonly found in synanthropic habitats, particularly gardens and under rubbish, but also in greenhouses, and sometimes arable land and pasture. It may spread into natural habitats, as in Britain, South Africa, Australia and Tenerife. Many identifications have been checked in the light of recent taxonomic revision, revealing that the sibling species D. panormitanum s.s. has spread much less extensively. A number of published or online records, especially in Australia, have turned out to be misidentifications of D. laeve.

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Reference:

Hutchinson, J., Reise, H. & Robinson, D., 2014. A biography of an invasive terrestrial slug: the spread, distribution and habitat of Deroceras invadens. NeoBiota 23: 17–64. Available at http://neobiota.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4006.

Colombian Megalobulimus

Jaramillo et al. (2014) recently published a paper which combined anatomical and molecular research on Megalobulimus oblongus (Müller, 1774) (Strophocheilidae) from Colombia.

The abstract reads: “In this work was done morphological and molecular analysis to 28 land snails of Megalobulimus oblongus, collected in different departments of Colombia, deposited in a reference collection. For morphological characterization, the animals were dissected in a stereomicroscope. The reproductive system and the shell were described. Measures were taken to structures of the reproductive system. Of the shell were described its shape, color, number of whorls and ornamentation and equally basic measures were taken using a digital caliper. For molecular analysis were used two mitochondrial markers, 16S rRNA and cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI). Only one haplotype was obtained for each marker, even for individuals of different and distant biogeographical regions. This study suggests that M. oblongus is in danger, therefore are urgent investigations about reproduction, population genetics and biogeography to clarify its situation in Colombia. It also demonstrates that the reference collections and tissue banks are sources of valuable information since they allow knowing aspects related with the species’ risk that serve as an input for the design of conservation actions”.

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The Colombian specimens were collected at six different sites, three of which are in Dept. Antioquia, and one in adjacent Caldas; two originated from the eastern departments. The genetic invariability found was linked to human transportation due to illegal trade. The conclusion that this species, widespread in South America, in endangered in Colombia seems premature. Not all species need to be conserved everywhere anytime in any political-administrative region; this might be a misconception of what biodiversity really is.

The data in Table 2 can be supplemented with the locality of Megalobulimus parafragilior Leme & Indrusiak, 1990: Brazil, São Paulo, Peruibe (MZSP 86740), as mentioned in the source from which the sequence was derived.

Reference:
Jaramillo Roldán, E., López Martínez, J., Ramírez, R. & Velásquez Trujillo, L. , 2014. Análisis morfológico del sistema reproductor e identificación molecular a través de los marcadores mitocondriales COI y 16S rRNA de Megalobulimus oblongus (Mollusca, Strophocheilidae) de Colombia. – Revista peruana de Biología 21: 79–88. http://bit.ly/1rGTAFs