Tag Archives: panama

New Carychium from Panama

A recent paper by Jochum et al. described a new species of the micro-mollusc genus Carychium using modern CT-scanning.

The abstract reads: “Five years ago, the Panamanian evolutionary lineage (EL) C12 was uncovered along with four other ELs in an integrative phylogenetic investigation of worldwide Carychiidae. Since EL C12 lacked shell material post-molecular analysis to serve as a museum voucher, it remained undescribed. Now, after recent collection efforts of C12 and the congener, Carychium zarzaae Jochum & Weigand, 2017 at their original Panamanian sites, C12 is morphologically described and formally assigned the name, Carychium panamaense Jochum, sp. n. In sync with recent taxonomic treatment of the genus, computed tomography (CT) is used in this work to differentiate shells of C. panamaense sp. n. from geographically-proximal, Caribbean, North and Central American congeners. Recent material of topotypic Carychium jardineanum (Chitty, 1853) and undamaged C. zarzaae were additionally CT-scanned and assessed in the comparative analyses”.

Schermafbeelding 2018-12-15 om 21.59.09

CT-scanning is a promising technique, especially for molluscs with internal folds or dents, and for micro-molluscs. Also anatomical details may be imaged and reconstructed in this way, as was previously shown in this proof of principle.

Schermafbeelding 2018-12-15 om 22.00.23

Jochem, A. et al., 2018. Fulfilling the taxonomic consequence after DNA Barcoding: Carychium panamaense sp. n. (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae) from Panama is described using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. – ZooKeys, 795: 1-12.

New Carychium species

Recently Jochum et al. published on Carychium species from the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, i.e. southeastern U.S.A., Belize and Panama. This add substantially to the known distribution of this genus in Central America.

The abstract reads: “Three new species of the genus Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773, Carychium hardiei Jochum & Weigand, sp. n., Carychium belizeense Jochum & Weigand, sp. n. and Carychium zarzaaeJochum & Weigand, sp. n. are described from the Southeastern United States, Belize and Panama, respectively. In two consecutive molecular phylogenetic studies of worldwide members of Carychiidae, the North and Central American morphospecies Carychiummexicanum Pilsbry, 1891 and Carychium costaricanum E. von Martens, 1898 were found to consist of several evolutionary lineages. Although the related lineages were found to be molecularly distinct from the two nominal species, the consequential morphological and taxonomic assessment of these lineages is still lacking. In the present paper, the shells of these uncovered Carychium lineages are assessed by comparing them with those of related species, using computer tomography for the first time for this genus. The interior diagnostic characters are emphasized, such as columellar configuration in conjunction with the columellar lamella and their relationship in context of the entire shell. These taxa are morphologically described and formally assigned their own names”.

They used micro-CT scanning to make the inner shell structures visible, which is an excellent and non-destructive way of doing.

Jochum, A. et al., 2017. Three new species of Carychium O.F. Müller, 1773 from the Southeastern USA, Belize and Panama are described using computer tomography (CT) (Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea, Carychiidae). – ZooKeys, 675: 97-127.
[open access: https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/12453/]

Invasive Deroceras slugs

Just published: a paper by Hutchinson et al. (2014) on invasive Deroceras slugs. The abstract reads:

The article reviews distribution records of Deroceras invadens (previously called D. panormitanum and D. caruanae), adding significant unpublished records from the authors’ own collecting, museum samples, and interceptions on goods arriving in the U.S.A. By 1940 D. invadens had already arrived in Britain, Denmark, California, Australia and probably New Zealand; it has turned up in many further places since, including remote oceanic islands, but scarcely around the eastern Mediterranean (Egypt and Crete are the exceptions), nor in Asia. Throughout much of the Americas its presence seems to have been previously overlooked, probably often being mistaken for D. laeve. New national records include Mexico, Costa Rica, and Ecuador, with evidence from interceptions of its presence in Panama, Peru, and Kenya. The range appears limited by cold winters and dry summers; this would explain why its intrusion into eastern Europe and southern Spain has been rather slow and incomplete. At a finer geographic scale, the occurrence of the congener D. reticulatum provides a convenient comparison to control for sampling effort; D. invadens is often about half as frequently encountered and sometimes predominates. Deroceras invadens is most commonly found in synanthropic habitats, particularly gardens and under rubbish, but also in greenhouses, and sometimes arable land and pasture. It may spread into natural habitats, as in Britain, South Africa, Australia and Tenerife. Many identifications have been checked in the light of recent taxonomic revision, revealing that the sibling species D. panormitanum s.s. has spread much less extensively. A number of published or online records, especially in Australia, have turned out to be misidentifications of D. laeve.



Hutchinson, J., Reise, H. & Robinson, D., 2014. A biography of an invasive terrestrial slug: the spread, distribution and habitat of Deroceras invadens. NeoBiota 23: 17–64. Available at http://neobiota.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4006.

Checklist and bibliography of Mexico and Central America

Thompson published a Checklist and bibliography of land and freshwater snails of Mexico and Central America in 2008; it was published online at the website of the Florida Museum of Natural History museum.

Recently an updated version of this publication was published in the Bulletin of the Museum, vol. 50 (Thompson 2011). It is available here: http://bit.ly/quhmro. One of the additions are species checklists for each country and the states in Mexico.

New paper

Today a new paper was published written together with Francisco Borrero (Borrero & Breure 2011). It revises the Amphibulimidae (genera Dryptus and Plekocheilus) from Colombia and adjacent areas.

The following new species are described, all from Colombia:

Plekocheilus (P.) bigener from Dept. Riseralda, Parque Nacional Natural Tatam??, Cerro Tatam??, 3600-3770 m (holotype RMNH 125626).


Plekocheilus (P.) incognitus from Dept. Antioquia, Medell??n, Vereda Piedras Blancas, 2200 m (holotype UAM).


Plekocheilus (Eurytus) camaritagua from Dept. Amazonas, Corregimiento La Pedrera (holotype ICNB).


Plekocheilus (Eurytus) paraguas from Dept. Valle del Cauca, Serran??a de Los Paraguas, Corregimiento El Boquer??n, Vereda Las Amarillas, near Cerro El Ingl??s, ~2160 m (holotype UVZ 97015).


Plekocheilus (Eurytus) labiosus from Dept. Cundinamarca, Parque Nacional Chingaza, Embalsa de Chuza, ~3100 m (holotype UVZ 97034).


All together 60 taxa are treated, with several keys to species (groups); additionally some taxa are reproted as unassignable or as erroneously reported from Colombia. Several species from neighbouring contries (Ecuador, Venezuela, Panama) are also included.