Tag Archives: peru

Photo of the day (170): Neopetraeus

Dulack Richards made an interesting contribution to the Facebook group Tree and Land Snails, by publishing this photo:

According to Richards on the top row: Neopetraeus arboriferus paucistrigatus [Weyrauch, 1967; type locality: Peru, La Libertad, road from Huamachuco to Pataz, Chagual], on the bottom row: Neopetraeus binneyanus [(L. Pfeiffer, 1857); type locality: Peru, prov. Pataz]. His question was: are the two other rows hybrids?

This phenomenon has more often been observed, albeit it is seldom, in other land snail species (see for examples from South America Breure, 2008). While it is the only case I know from Neopetraeus, there are different Bostryx species where transitional series can be found. Research has been done in the río Rimac valley near Lima where a similar case can be found. Based on measuments of the microclimate and molecular studies, provisional results point to ecological factors to explain this transition; it may be regarded as a cline and this does not allow for the delineation of (sub)species. So, at least, morphologically these shells look like hybrids, but it may be possible that a study of the DNA would reveal a more nuanced picture.

Remains the question: were these shells collected at the same locality and, if so, where? It may be noted that the type locality of N. binneyanus was very imprecise, so from a scientific point of view it is interesting to have a clue where this cline originated from. On my question to Richards to disclose the locality he did not provide an answer, but given the type locality of Weyrauch’s taxon my guess is it was in the vicinity of Chagual (see also p. 511 in my 2008 paper).

Breure, A.S.H., 2008. Carination strikes the eye: extreme shell shapes and sibling species in three Andean genera of the Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora). – Zoologische Mededelingen, 82: 499-514.


Two papers on CCP snails

Two papers were published, one very recently and one today, related to the material collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ (CCP). This material was collected during an expedition that lasted from late 1862 to  early 1866 through several Neotropical counties. The material has been deposited in the Madrid museum and was originally studied by Hidalgo (terrestrial molluscs, marine gastropods) and Martínez (marine bivalves).

The terrestrial material has been restudied during a SYNTHESYS project last year, and has resulted in two papers. One dealing with the CCP material and the history of the expedition (Breure & Araujo, 2017), and one dealing with the publication date of Hidalgo’s main paper on the CCP material and related correspondence from him with Crosse in Paris (Breure & Backhuys, 2017).

The link to the first paper is here.

Due to an unfortunate coincidence at the proof stage (we unexpectedly received only one proof), the following corrections were not made in the published version:
Fig. 3 in the text (page 4) correspond to Fig. 2B
Fig. 4 in the text (page 5) correspond to Fig. 3A
Fig. 5 in the text (page 6) correspond to Fig. 3B
Fig. 6 in the text (page 6) correspond to Fig. 4A
Fig. 7 in the text (page 7) correspond to Fig. 4B
Fig. 8 in the text (page 9) correspond to Fig. 5A
Fig. 9 in the text (page 10) correspond to Fig. 5B
Fig. 10 in the text (page 12) correspond to Fig. 6A
Fig. 11 in the text (page 12) correspond to Fig. 6B
Then, after Fig. 11 in the text, appear Figs. 7A-7B (page 17) that actually correspond to the Figures 7A and 7B; later (page 17) appears Fig. 8G-8H that correspond to Fig. 8.
Finally, Fig. 27H does not depict Bostryx rouaulti as the wrong shell was photographed.

Breure, A.S.H. & Araujo, R. The Neotropical land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’. — PeerJ 5: e3065 (142 pp.).
Breure, A.S.H. & Backhuys, W. Science networks in action: the collaboration between J.G. Hidalgo and H. Crosse, and the creation of ‘Moluscos del Viaje al Pacifico, Univalvos terrestres’. — Iberus 35: 11–30.

Dissertation on some Peruvian snails

This is not a new publication, but already from 2008. It is a dissertation of Samira Guevara, who graduated in 2005 in Hamburg, Germany under supervision of Prof.Dr Klaus Bandel and Dr Bernhard Hausdorf. The subject of her thesis was the systematic treatment of snails collected in and around three National Parks in Peru. As this dissertation falls into the ‘grey literature’ I pay some attention to it, despite not being very recently published. The thesis is in Spanish, with summaries in German and English.

Snails were collected in the vicinity of Moyobamba (Bosque de Alto Mayo), Tingo Maria (Parque Nacional Tingo Maria), and Cuzco (Parque Nacional Manu). In total 5000 specimens were collected, belonging to 40 families and 136 species. The thesis gives more details for the families Helicinidae (10 species), Ceresidae (3 species) and Bulimulidae (9 species).

In the family Helicinidae, three new species are described: Helicina (Concentrica) bandeli, H. (C.) peruensis, and Alcadia (Microalcadia) kasteli. As the thesis was formally published in 2008, all species should have as author “Guevara, 2008”. The following pictures provide photographs of the holotype of each species, together with the type locality and the depository mentioned in the legends (ZMH is Zoologisches Museum, Universität Hamburg):

schermafbeelding-2016-11-25-om-11-38-04 schermafbeelding-2016-11-25-om-11-38-45 schermafbeelding-2016-11-25-om-11-39-06

The type localities for Helicina (Concentricaperuensis respectively Alcadia (Microalcadiakasteli are: Dept. San Martin, Cataratas del Gera, 12 km SE Moyobamba, 500m, respectively Dept. San Martin, Cueva Huacharos de Palestina-Rioja, 44 km NW Moyobamba, 894 m.

From the nine species mentioned in the family Bulimulidae, I think three have been misidentified. Both Valentín Mogollón and I arrived at the same conclusions. We will report on these in a later stage.


Guevara, S., 2005 [2008]. Estudio taxonómico y systemático de las familias Helicinidae y Ceresidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neritopsina) y el género Drymaeus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Bulimulidae), en tres zonas de la Reserva Amazónica de Perú. Thesis Universität Hamburg, 2005 (unpublished) / Berlin, Verlag im Internet, 2008.

Photo of the day (168): Neopetraeus

It has been a while ago that I received some interesting pictures of living snails (last post here), but today I have some photos to share which show different Neopetraeus species from Peru. The fist one is Neopetraeus tessellatus (Shuttleworth, 1852) from Huaracpampa, Cascapara, Yungay, Ancash, 3000 m.


The second is N. cremnobates H.B. Baker, 1963, from Kiman Ayllu, Cañón del Pato, Ancash, 1800 m.


Both photographs with accompanying identifications were sent by Valentín Mogollón (Lima), and are here thankfully acknowledged.

New paper

In the latest issue of the Journal of Conchology a paper appeared by Araya et al. about the occurrence of Bostryx hennahi (J.E. Gray, 1828) in northern most Chile and southernmost Peru.


This species appears confined to fog oasis in the extreme arid deserts in the region, and is thus an example of a harnessed species to harsh conditions.

Araya, J.F., Madrid, M. & Breure, A.S.H., 2016. Bostryx hennahi (Gray, 1828) the largest Chilean bulimulid (Mollusca: Pulmonata) rediscovered among Tillandsia communities in northern Chile. — Journal of Conchology 42: 161–165.

New Megalobulimus from Peru

Borda & Ramirez (2016) have just published a new paper on Peruvian Megalobulimus species, in which they also describe two new species.

Schermafbeelding 2016-08-16 om 13.40.46

The abstract of their paper is: “A major taxonomic problem around the genus Megalobulimus Miller,1878, the largest land snails in the Neotropics, is plasticity of conchological characters. Here we re-describe Megalobulimus leucostoma (Sowerby, 1835) and describe two new species of Megalobulimus from Southern Peru, Megalobulimus tayacajus sp.nov. and Megalobulimus inambarisense sp.nov. These descriptions are based on both conchological and soft anatomical characters. Megalobulimus leucostoma is characterized by the presence of a retractor muscle with two insertions to the buccal mass, two small bulges on pre-rectal valve, and a geographical distribution appears limited to Cusco. Megalobulimus tayacajus sp.nov. is characterized by the presence of a retractor muscle that divides near the buccal mass, two lobed bulges on pre-rectal valve, and to date, has been found only in Huancavelica. Megalobulimus inambarisense sp.nov. is characterized by the presence of a retractor muscle with one insertion to the buccal mass, two big bulges on pre-rectal valve, and a distribution appears limited to Puno. The digestive system appears to serve as useful characters to discriminate these species and, when combined with shell and reproductive characters, may help to understand better the evolution and ecology of these snails”.

Borda, V. & Ramirez, R., 2016. The genus Megalobulimus (Gastropoda: Strophocheilidae) from Peruvian Andes: Re-description of Megalobulimus leucostoma and description of two new species. – American Malacological Bulletin 34: 15–27.